If You Are An Arakanese, Be An Arakanese. Never Surrender. Never Give Up. ရခိုင္ဆိုေက ရခိုင္ပိုင္ ျပဳမႈ ေျပာဆိုနီထိုင္ပါ။ ရခိုင္သည္ ရခိုင္ျဖစ္သည္။ ဂစၥပနဒီ ျမစ္သည္ ဘဂၤလားပင္လယ္ေအာ္သို႔စီး၀င္သည္။ ဧရာ၀တီျမစ္သည္ ကပၸလီပင္လယ္ထဲသို႔စီး၀င္သည္။


Friday, 4 December 2009

The Kingdom of Arakan or The dark side of the VOC mentality

he VOC mentality

The kingdom of Arakan on the border of Bangladesh and Burma was the VOC's largest supplier of slaves. The need for workers for the spice plantations on the Banda island transformed the slave trade from a supply-driven into a demand-driven market.

Map of Arakan circa 1595 byPieter van den Keere. Source: Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, Itinerario, voyage ofte schipvaert, van Ian Huygen van Linschoten naer de Oost ofte Portugaels Indien, inhoudende een corte beschrijvinghe der selver landen ende zeecusten... (Amsterdam 1595-96)

Powerful state
Using primarily Dutch source material, historian Stephan van Galen has examined the rise and fall of the Mrauk U kingdom in Arakan. From the fifteenth century, it grew from an agrarian realm into a powerful state controlling an area from the coastal strips of Dhaka (Bangladesh) to Rangoon (Burma). However, it only flourished for a short period. At the end of the seventeenth century, the empire collapsed as quickly as it had risen.

For a long time, Arakan remained unexplored territory for historians. 'This was because of its location,' says van Galen. 'It lay on the border of the academic research areas of South-East Asia and South Asia: an academic no-man's-land. What is more important is that Arakan never developed into a national state, the starting point of most historical research. In the 1990s, scientific interest in the Gulf of Bengal increased, including interest in the role of Arakan in the history of the region.

The Letsekan gate, in Mrauk U, Burma

Trading post

Between 1608 and 1682, the VOC had an important trading post in Arakan. The source material provided by these trading contacts is invaluable for the history of the kingdom. Van Galen: 'The diaries which have not previously been consulted, journals and intensive letter exchanges between Batavia, the Netherlands and Mrauk U are very valuable because there are almost no contemporary Burmese sources available. Using VOC archives, and to a lesser extent, Persian and Portuguese sources, I have been able to write the history of Arakan.'

Explosive growth

Van Galen was particularly interested in the rapid rise and fall of the kingdom. He attributes the rapid expansion which Arakan underwent to the relationship with neighbouring Bengal. 'From the fifteenth century, the Bengali economy experienced enormous growth. The kings of Arakan formed alliances with Portuguese adventurers and traders, which gained them a large part of the riches of Bengal. And now it appears that the sixteenth and seventeenth century kings of Mrauk U controlled a much greater area of Bengal than had been assumed.

Arakan women praying to Buddha in the central chamber of the Dukhanthein temple in Mrauk U.

Tax revenues

Van Galen has reached this conclusion based on sources which record tax revenues. Large parts of Bengal, which were thought to have been under the rule of Indonesian Moguls, paid taxes to the Arakan court. These tax revenues were considerably greater than the income from trade, and contributed to the success of Arakan. The Arakan kings used this revenue to build numerous Buddhist temples. The ruins of the city of Mrauk U, an almost undiscovered city in the jungle of Burma, are evidence of the power and wealth of the kingdom.

Prime period

But this prime period was short-lived. While Arakan spread in the sixteenth century to East Bengal, the Indonesian Mogul empire advanced towards West Bengal. This confrontation led to a war which was to last for ninety years. The Buddhist kings of Araken suffered defeat. The loss of Bengal brought to an end the flourishing of the empire, which declined further in the course of the seventeenth century.


'The war did have one remarkable by-product,' says Van Galen. 'Large numbers of prisoners of war were captured, who were later to be traded as slaves. The main destination for these slaves was the VOC. In his determination to gain control of the valuable spice plantations on the Banda islands, Governor General Jan-Pieterszoon Coen had massacred an estimated 15,000 people. As a result of this massive slaughter, the Netherlands probably had the world's only source of nutmeg and mace, but there were no more workers left to tend the plantations. Slaves from Arakan offered the solution.

Slave market in Pipli: Lusu Arakanese slave traders selling slaves to the VOC. Source: Wouter Schouten, Oost-Indische Voyagie.

Indiscriminate and random

Van Galen states that the supply of slaves to Indonesia up to 1624 had been indiscriminate and random. This situation changed when, from 1623, Arakan, with its structural supply, became the major supplier of slaves to the VOC. Together with the kings of Arakan, the VOC became the biggest trader in slaves of the seventeenth century. The VOC's great need for slaves transformed the character of the Arakan slave market from a supply-driven into a demand-driven market.


The significance of Arakan for the VOC was apparent, not only from the slave trade, but also from the trade in rice. 'Rice from the most fertile fields in Bengal and Arakan was an important source of food for the hungry population in Batavia,' says Van Galen. 'It probably saved Batavia from a famine. It is clear that both empires profited from the intensive trading contacts. It is not inconceivable that the Arakan kings may have been able to postpone the decline of their empire ar a result of their trade with the VOC.'

PhD defence: Thursday 13 March, 16.15 hrs
Stephan van Galen: Arakan and Bengal. The rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century AD
Faculty: Arts
Supervisor: Prof. Dr D.H.A. Kolff

(11 March 2008/Marl Pluijmen)

(http://www.leidenuniv.nl/en/researcharchive/index.php3-c=456.htm)The dark side of the VOC mentality


Wednesday, 7 October 2009

An Historian Looks at so- called Rohingya

An Historian Looks at so- called Rohingya

Wednesday, October 7, 2009

Dr. Aye Kyaw has written books on education and culture in Burma. He was born in Lwe Chaung village in Taungok Township in Arakan State. He has a BA in history and religion, an MA in Asian history and a BA in law from Rangoon University. He earned a Ph.D in Southeast Asia History at Monash University in Australia.

Dr. Aye Kyaw taught at universities in Burma, Thailand and the US. Now retired, he lives in New York city.

While visiting Bangkok, he was interviewed by Ba Saw Tin on his views on Arakan history, politics in Burma and the debate over Rohingya history and their troubled relationship with the Burmese military government.

Question: Describe Arakan politics before Burma's independence?

Answer: Arakan leaders always joined in Burma's struggle for independence. They participated at the forefront in the struggle against British colonial rule and the Japanese invasion. If someone asks why they participated, it was because the Arakan wanted to rule themselves. The prominent Arakan leaders during British rule were Monk U Seinda, monk U Pyinnya Thiha, U Nyo Tun, U Aung Zan Wai, U Kyaw Min, U Ba Saw and others. These leaders were prominent figures in the Arakan resistance movement and Arakan politics. Monk U Ottama was one of the first leaders in Burmese politics.

If you look at the situation of the Arakan under British rule, there were two groups. One group worked with the British, and one group joined in the independence struggle led by Gen. Aung San.

U Nyo Tun was a famous student leader in the 1936 student strike, and he was quite well-known in both the Arakan and Burmese community. While Burmese acknowledge March 27 as marking the beginning of the resistance movement against Japan, the Arakan had already started their resistance against Japan earlier, around Feb. 12 or 13.

Q. What happened to the Arakan after the independence struggle?

A. The main reason they fought was to get their own state and self rule. Unfortunately, when Burma won independence, nothing came of it. They asked Prime Minister U Nu to grant them a state, but U Nu evaded the issue.

Q. How did politics development during the following years?

A. During U Nu's Anti Fascist Peoples' Freedom League (AFPFL) rule, there were two powerful political parties in Arakan State: The AFPFL and the Arakan Unity Party (AUP). U Kyaw Min led the AUP. U Aung Zan Wai and Taung Koke U Kyaw Tin led the AFPFL in the Arakan region.

Then the AFPFL split into two factions: the "stable" AFPFL and the “clean” AFPFL. The clean AFPFL faction leader, prime minister U Nu, set up Mayu District in Arakan State. He registered Bengali as citizens through national registration and allowed them to vote. During the Colonial era, the Bengali started coming into Arakan to work. They mostly worked in the agricultural sector, and then returned when the work was done. One of the prominent leaders among Bengali was Sultan Mahmud. The AFPFL was weak in a sense. When U Nu allowed Bengalis to enter Mayu District that was the beginning of today’s Rohingya problem.

Q. Do you know when the use of the term "Rohingya" began?

A. I think it appeared during the 1960s. Because even the Bengali leader, Sultan Mahmud, when he became a member of parliament, I don’t think he used the word "Rohingya." In earlier Burmese history and in Arakan history, I haven’t seen the word Rohinhya. Even after independence, there was no such word.

Q. What does "Rohingya” mean?

A. When Sayagyi U Tha Tun was in good health, we visited whenever he was in Rangoon. We had conversations on several themes: literature, history and other social matters. Once, he explained to me the meaning of Rohingya. The word derived from an Arakan word, Lwintja.

Lwintja in Arakan means leaves falling from trees and blowing around without any purpose. The word basically means anything or anyone wandering around without a cause. I analyzed the word in the linguistic sense, and I once wrote an academic article in the Pyinnya Padesa journal, published by Rangoon University.

Q. Nowadays, many Arakans see the Rohingya as a threat. Why?

A. The underlying reason was the emergence of the Mujahids, who started an armed insurrection in Arakan State to try to acquire their own land. Originally, they were Bengali from Bangladesh. In earlier days, they came to work in Arakan and returned to their homes when the work was done. Then they faced difficulties living in Bangladesh because it was so crowded. Afterward, the Mujahids attempted to set up a Muslim State in Buthee Taung, Maung Daw and Yathei Taung townships of Mayu District, where U Nu had granted them the right to live. When the Mujahids began to prosper, the Arakans didn't accept the idea. The Arakans see them as a danger, threatening their land, national identity and religion, and that is why the Arakans are so allergic to the word, Rohingya.

Q. What is the background situation of Rohinja's emergence?

A. That is a good question. The Rohingya issue is just a problem on the surface. The underlying problem is the idea of "Islamization" and the expansion of Islam. The Rohingya movement is funded by countries in North Africa and the Middle East. These countries have donated large amount of money and weapons. In Southeast Asia, organizations in Malaysia support them. They support the expansion of Islam. They operate as “Burmese nationals” and “Arakan citizens” by using the name of Rohingya. Actually, Rohinja are not a race, and they are not Burmese citizens.

Q. The Rohingya are not acknowledged by the military junta as an ethnic nationality in Burma. But the Rohingya are seeking a position on the Ethnic Nationalities Council (in exile). The Arakan representatives oppose them. How do you define an ethnic nationality?

A. In 1978, while under the Burma Socialist Programme Party rule, me, Dr. Maung Maung (the late President), and U San Thar Aung discussed a law on ethnic nationality. Dr. Maung Maung was an academic on law, I am an historian and U San Thar Aung was director general of the higher education department at that time. We discussed the matter in a room in the State Council office.

I said that for recognizing an ethnic nationality in Burma, there was a census record during the Bodaw Phaya reign, made in the 18th century. It listed all nationalities living in Burma, and it mentioned Arakans, Karens and Mons (Talaings) in the survey. The document can be taken as a base, I suggested.

Dr. Maung Maung said that survey was too early. Then I suggested the year of 1824, a turning point in Burmese history when the British annexed lower Burma. Dr. Maung Maung agreed on that date, and we drafted a law that people living in Burma during 1824 were recognized as ethnic nationalities. We found no such word as Rohingya in that survey.



Tuesday, 22 September 2009





အသီးဆိုးက် ဆံုးလီ၏...။


၂၀၀၉ တြင္
ပို၍ပို၍ တိုးလီ၏...။


ဆြဲဖို႔ အနာဂတ္
ကိုယ့္အိမ္ ကိုယ့္ရာ
အာလံု ပိတ္လ်က္



Sunday, 2 August 2009


SAN SHWE BU J.B.R.S Vol. Part 2. 1917

In India Buddhism flourished in its purest form till the close of the first century A.D. during which time it had no rival faith worthy the name. That the Jains of those days formed an insignificant minority will be clearly evidenced by the fact that more than three fourths of the people named, specified objects of donation, inscriptions throughout India from Asoka to Kanishka's time are Buddhist, while the majority of the remainder are Jain. From that time onwards the Brahmans, with their numerous gods and manifold sacrifices, became increasingly powerful till, in the first half of the eighth century a furious persecution instigated by the great Brahman apostle, Kumarila Bhata, succeeded in eliminating Buddhism from the land of its birth. It cannot, therefore, be supposed that such a mighty upheaval did not in some way influence the religious thoughts and ideas of Arakan, which is India's next door neighbour.

In fact all available records clearly indicate that just about this time or a little while after it, Brahman gods and their sacrificial forms came into Arakan and along with Buddhism ___ the original religion ___ they found equal favour with the people. It so profoundly affected the Arakanese of those days that a whole dynasty of their kings adopted Hindu names. The coins they struck bore on one side the effigy of the sacred bull, Nandi, the riding animal of the god Siva.

Temples were erected in quick succession in the approved Indian style and were specially dedicated to the worship of Siva and Vishnu. The decorations, which were used in these religious structures, consisted of figures illustrating the lesser gods of the Hindu Pantheon.

When Datha-Raja ascended the throne of Arakan in the 12th century, Buddhism and Brahmanism shared equal honours and the cults of Siva and Vishnu were in high favour. Indeed, so deeply rooted were the latter faiths in his country that they affected all the ceremonials, even of a purely domestic nature. They permeated every household and influenced the individual and domestic concerns of everyday life. They interfered with marriage, which before that time, was purely a civil contract; they required a person to perform certain sacrifices before undertaking a journey; they imposed obligation on cultivators and fishermen and, in a thousand different other ways, which constituted the daily life of the people.

Nowhere in the history of Arakan is this fact so prominently brought out than in the coronation of King Datha-Raja on the full moon day of Kason 1158 A.D., which the old chroniclers have handed down to us with all the accuracy and vividness of the Dutch School. The following is a summary of what I have been able to gather from various sources, which, I trust, will enable the general reader to from a just estimate of the powerful influence of Brahmanism in Arakan from the end of the 8th to the middle of the 14th century A.D.

By the advice of the astrologers and the other Brahmans, whose specially duty was to conduct religious ceremonies, active preparations were made for the coronation of the King. From the seven different hills in the various parts of the kingdom earth was collected. A particular kind of wood was cut at a certain hour of certain day of a certain week for the erection of the pandals. On the most auspicious day of that year, i.e. the full moon day of Kason, three kinds of pandals were erected, having for their roofing a particular kind of leaves brought by the Shans of the north-east. The place selected was the right bank of the Lemro river, a parallel stream to the east of the Kaladan. The first pandal had the general appearance of a lion and was called Thi-Har-Tha-Na (oD[moe). The second resembled an elephant and was called Ga-Zar-Tha-Na (*Zmoe). The third resembled a peacock and was called Mor-Rar-Tha-Na (arm&moe). The first was decorated all in white, the second in red, and the third in blue. In the first Brahmans, in the second sailors, and the third cultivators, waited in attendance. Then the ground covered by each of the pandals was laid over with a layer of the earth brought from the seven different hills. In the first pandal, a millionaire's son clothed in yellow robes had to till the ground by means of a gold ploughshare drawn by white bulls. In the second, the son of one who belonged to the middle class and clad in red robes had to do the same by means of a silver ploughshare. The son of an agriculturist in green robes had to do likewise in the third by means of an iron ploughshare. After this, the earth was well mixed with cow's milk and dung and then grains of paddy, millet, sessamum and so forth were strewn over. The whole place was then fenced off so as to prevent the intrusion of those who were not directly concerned with the ceremonies.

When these preliminaries had been gone through, the Brahmans conveyed the images of Sarasvati, Parvati and Visnu on chariots decked out for the occasion, and placed them in the pandals amidst the chants of mantras and other incantations. Twelve other Brahmans and four Bhikkhus intoned special hymns usually employed at the ordination of Buddhist monks. At the same time, another class of Brahmans repeated appropriate slokas from the vedic texts. This ended, there was a simultaneous blowing of conches during which the structures were sprinkled with holy water.

The sacred water of the Ganges was then brought in jars of gold, and, at the most favourable conjunction of the planets, the water of the Kaladan and the Lemro rivers was conveyed by forty virgins belonging to the five highest classes of the people. Eight were princesses with gold jars; eight were daughters of Brahmans with earthen-ware jars; eight were daughters of ministers with copper jars; eight were daughters of millionaires with silver jars; and eight were daughters of middle class people with iron jars. Each class went in separate boats and were accompanied by Brahmans, ministers and representative agriculturists. Then in the midst of strains of joyous music, the boats pulled towards midstream, where the jars were filled and then the parties returned to the shore. The water conveyed by the princesses and the daughters of Brahmans was placed in the lion pandal, that brought by the daughters of ministers in the elephant pandal and the remainder in the peacock pandal. The whole route from the Royal Palace to the pandals was sprinkled with holy water and flowers by Brahmans, who chanted hymns at the same time. It was also completely roofed over all the way so as to shut out sunlight, and, on both sides, sugar cane and plantain trees were alternately planted.

At the conclusion of all these elaborate preparations, the King and Queen clad in splendid robes, glittering with the nine kinds of gems that ornamented them, proceeded on a white elephant towards the pandals, escorted by armed soldiers, Brahmans and ministers, who went both before and behind them. On arrival, they entered the lion pandal. Here, the King separating himself from the queen uttered certain formulas while humbly seated on the floor. He then bathed himself in the elephant pandal, and, in the other, he washed his head. Having performed this acts, the eight princesses clad in beautiful raiment stood before the King, and administered the first coronation oath: “Oh King, in all your conduct, be you guided by the wisdom and experience of all the wise monarchs who ruled the earth before you. Oh King, it is our fervent hope that you will not be the first to give offence to other neighbouring kings; that you will always encourage and support all the industrial and commercial enterprises of your subjects; that you will always treat your people as if they were your own children; that you will guard and protect their properties and possessions and that you will always regard their lives as dear as your own. Oh King, we wish you to discard every form of anger, malice and hatred, and to do and say only that which is right and appropriate.” Saying this, with one accord and with uplifted hands, they poured from silvery white conches studded with gems the sacred Ganges water over his head.

Eight high-class Brahmans then stepped forward and administered the second oath: “Oh King, be the defender of your faith. Strive always to make it popular and universal. Love and defend all living beings as you would own self. Protect the properties of your subjects as you would your own. In all political relations with other countries, do not be the aggressor. We implore you to discharge your kingly duties always, to listen to the advice of wise counselors and to preserve the honour of your race”. They then went through the same ceremony of pouring Ganges water over his head.

Eight men belonging to the middle class then stepped forward and administered the third oath: “Oh King, we trust you will introduce just and benign laws for the prosperity and progress of your subjects. We implore you to avoid all forms of evil and to shun the companionship of those who have no honour nor self-respect.”

At the conclusion of this ceremony, the representatives of all the different classes of people took their stand before the King, and administered the fourth and final oath: “Oh King, by virtue of the ( water pouring) ceremony, which we have just performed, we hope you will be able to carry out all our wishes in every particular. Rule us wisely and well, and never levy taxes more than the legitimate one-tenth of our incomes. Oh King, if you fulfill all our wishes and act and say all that we implore you to do, your majesty, might and power, both in the present and the future, will steadily increase, like the rising sun and the waxing moon. All the other kings will bow down before you, and own your allegiance, and all the territories over which you bear rule will be from robbers and evil-doers. There will be profound peace, prosperity and plenty, and, above all, you will enjoy a long and happy life. But if, on the other hand, you set our wishes at naught, and give rein only to your own wicked and selfish desire, without any regard for the happiness and welfare of your subjects, may there be not only a speedy disintegration of your Kingdom by the prevalence of frequent storms, earth-quakes, fires and other destructive forces of nature, by the depredation of thieves, robbers and all other agents of lawlessness, but may you yourself also have a short and miserable life, and, in the end, may you suffer unto eternity all the indescribable horrors of the nethermost hell.”

The King then, having made a solemn vow that he would conduct himself in such a way as to give satisfaction to every one of his subjects, returned with his Queen to the Royal Palace in the same imposing order as when he started from it. This concluded the whole ceremony, and the three pandals were dismantled and cast into the Lemro river in order to prevent the commission of sacrilege on them.



Thursday, 30 July 2009

Rohingya terrorist suspects captured

Rohingya terrorist suspects captured

Anupong, Prawit under fire for 'failing in South'

Published: 17/06/2009 at 12:00 AM
Newspaper section: News

Security authorities have arrested three Rohingya allegedly involved in passport forgery and human and weapons trafficking, and said to be linked to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka and insurgents in the far South.

They were also suspected of being connected with al-Qaeda terrorists.

The arrest of Mohammad Ali Hussein, Mohammad Mudbahem and Chubri Awae followed a joint operation between the Department of Special Investigation, armed forces and immigration police.

Mr Mohammad Ali was arrested on Monday at his Thai wife's house in Chaiyaphum's Kaset Sombun district after he sneaked into Thailand early this month. His former aide, Mr Mohammad Mudbahem, was nabbed in Songkhla's Hat Yai district on the same day. The date and place where Mr Chubri was caught remained unclear.

Mr Mohammad Ali was alleged to be the leader of a transnational gang trafficking illegal migrant workers to a third country through Thailand and forging and supplying fake passports, DSI chief Pol Col Thawee Sodsong said.

He was also said to be a war weapons broker who did business with the Tamil Tigers and human traffickers, Pol Col Thawee said. His stronghold was in Hat Yai before moving to Bangkok. He also allegedly supplied fake passports to people who possibly included al-Qaeda members who travelled to the US to carry out the terrorist attacks on Sept 11, 2001, the DSI chief said.

Mr Mohammad Ali was released from jail in Malaysia in April after serving two years. He was convicted of posing a national security threat.

Mr Mohammad Mudbahem was said to have succeeded him as the most influential transnational criminal in the South.

DSI deputy chief Pol Col Naras Savestanan claimed the pair trafficked people, most of them Rohingya, Sri Lankans and Pakistanis and charged them at least 200,000 baht each.

He said their gang was involved with war weapons and the drugs trade in the southern region.

"The large criminal syndicate is still moving in certain areas in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat," Pol Col Thawee said. "Some evidence tracked from mobile phones also shows the group is linked to the southern violence."

The three suspects will be charged with brokering human trafficking to a third country, forging and selling fake passports, and assisting illegal migrants to enter Thailand in order to pass to another country.

Meanwhile, in the far South, two non-commissioned police officers were killed by a bomb planted on a motorcycle in front of their Sai Buri police station in Pattani yesterday.

In Yala's Raman district, a 54-year-old woman teacher at Ban Pomeng School was shot in the head and killed while riding her motorcycle from her house to the school yesterday morning.

In Narathiwat's Yi-ngo district, police destroyed a 10kg bomb found in a palm plantation.

The continued violence prompted Gen Pathompong Kaysornsuk, former armed forces chief adviser, to criticise Defence Minister Prawit Wongsuwon and army chief Anupong Paojinda for failing to get the situation under control.

He said Gen Prawit and Gen Anupong should spend more time in the far South to better assess the situation.

"Both of them should stay in the South at least a month," Gen Pathompong said. "Spending time with subordinates, they will know the truth and the feelings of local people. Visiting the region only once a week is useless. Don't pay attention only to politics or figure out how to keep this government. That's not the duty of the armed forces."

Gen Watanachai Chaimuanwong, former deputy army chief who was in charge of the southern insurgency under the Surayud Chulanont government, warned that the situation in the far South could escalate as more terrorists are trained by Jemaah Islamiyah and al-Qaeda.

"The terrorists have completely overhauled their plans," he said.

"Their war will be more violent. Government authorities cannot fight them because we still adhere to conventional strategies."




ျမန္မာက်ဴးေက်ာ္စစ္ကို (၄၅)ရက္ၾကာ ခုခံတိုက္ခိုက္ၿပီးေနာက္ ၁၇၈၄-ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇဘၤာလ ၃၁-ရက္နိန္႕မွာ ရခိုင္ျပည္ႀကီးနန္႕တကြ ရုပ္ရွင္ေတာ္ မဟာျမတ္မုနိ အသိမ္းခံလိုက္ရသည္၊ ျမန္မာမ်ားသည္ ရခိုင္ ရီြနန္းေတာ္၊ ပိဋကတ္တိုက္ေတာ္။ ဘုန္ႀကီးေက်ာင္းအႀကီး (၃၀) အငယ္ (၃၀ဝ၀)ေက်ာ္ကို မီးလွ်ဳိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးခသည္၊ ရခိုင္တျပည္လံုး ဖူးဖူးေရာင္ေသာ လူသီေကာင္မ်ားျဖင့္ ျပန္႕ႀကဲလ်က္ဟိသည္၊ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း (၅၀ဝ၀)ေက်ာ္ ကိုယ့္ထီးကိုယ့္နန္းနန္႕ နီထိုင္လာခေသာ ရခိုင္ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္႔ တိုင္းသားျပည္သူမ်ားမွာ ကူမည့္သူမဟိ ဖီးလြတ္ရာ
ကို ထြက္ၿပီးကတ္ရသည္၊ ျမန္မာမ်ားသည္ ပုခက္တြင္းသား အေခ်သူငယ္ရို႕ကိုပါမခ်န္ သတ္ျဖတ္သည္၊ ရခိုင္မွတ္တမ္း

“အေခ်သငယ္အစိတ္ေကရို႕။ ၿပဳံရယ္ရြင္ဘိ။ မိမသိကို။ မြီးမိထံမွ ယူၿပီးမွလ်င္။ က်လာမလြြဲဲ။ ႏွစ္စိပ္ကြြဲဲဲလို႕ ရဲရဲသြြီီီးးစက္ အထြက္၏။ တခ်က္ၿမီႏွစ္လွန္ကိုစိုက္ကာ ခံလိုက္ တံုလွ်င္ ရင္ကဝင္၏ဟု တြိရပါသည္၊ အသတ္ခံရေသာ ရခိုင္သားရို႕ကို “တင္္းးဝပန္္းးခိုငိုငိုင္ တၿမဳိင္ၿမဳိင္္ရခိုိုင္လူူအေလာင္္းး” ဟု မွတ္တမ္းတင္ထားခသည္၊

ဂဏန္းသခ်ၤာအလို (၇)သန္းေက်ာ္သည္၊ ျမန္မာတိ သတ္ျဖတ္ခသည္ကို အစြဲျပဳလို႕ေဂါင္းပံုျပင္ (ေျမာက္ဦး)။ လူသတ္ဂ်ိဳင္(ေျမာက္ဦး)။ ရီတက္ရီက်ေသာအခါ ေသာင္ျပင္တြင္ အစုလိုက္အၿပဳံလိုက္ ခ်ိဳင္ေႏွာင္ပနာ သတ္ခေသာေႀကာင့္ရီအက်တြင္ ျဖဴနီေသာ အေလာင္းေကာင္တိကို ျမင္ရေသာေႀကာင့္ ျပင္ျဖဴေမာ္ (ေျမာက္ဦး)။ အေခ်သူငယ္ရို႕ကို အရွင္လတ္လတ္ ေပါင္ကိုဖဲ့ပနာ သတ္ခေသာေႀကာင့္ ေပါင္ဖဲ့ရြာ(မာန္ေအာင္) လက္ကိုျဖတ္ပနာ ေတာင္ႏွယ္ပံုထားေသာေႀကာင့္ လက္ပံုေတာင္(မာန္ေအာင္)။ ရီကန္တြင္ လူအျပည့္သတ္ပနာ ပံုထားေသာေႀကာင့္ သီေဘးကန္(ေပါက္ေတာ)။ လက္ပံျပား
လူသတ္ကန္(ေပါက္ေတာ)။ သြီးေခ်ာင္း(ေတာင္ကုတ္)။ လူအသားတိကိုခြတ္ျဖတ္ပနာ ပံုထားေသာေႀကာင့္ အသားပံုရြာ (ပု႑ာာြ်န္း) စသည္စသည္ျဖင့္ နာမတြင္သည္၊

ႏွစ္ေပါင္း(၄၀)လံုးလံုး ရခိုင္အမ်ိဳးတံုးလားေအာင္ သတ္ျဖတ္ခသည္၊ မာန္ေအာင္ၿမဳိ႕တၿမိဳ႕တည္းတြင္ အသတ္ခံရသည္ကိုမွတ္တမ္းတင္ထားသည္မွာ “လူငယ္တေသာင္္း။ လူႀကီီးးေပါင္္းမူူ။သွ်စ္ေသာင္္းးအစြန္္းး။ တသိန္္းးမွွန္္း၏။ မယြန္္းးထိိုုခါ။ သီကုုန္ပါ၏။သိမ္္းကာယူက။ ျပည္အင္္းဝသိို႕။ ပါရလီျငား။ လူူေယာက်ၤၤားႏွင့့္။မျပားမွန္းထ။ လူမိန္းမကို။ ရြီႀကလီေသာ္။ ႏွစ္သိန္းေက်ာ္၏။
ႀကားေသာ္ျမင္ခါ။ ေႀကာက္ဖြယ္သာတည္္းး” ဟုျဖစ္သည္၊၁၈၂၆-ခုႏွစ္ ၿဗိတိသွ်လက္ေအာက္ က်ေရာက္ရေသာ
အခါ ျမန္မာလက္ေအာက္ ႏွစ္(၄၀) ငရဲစခန္းသည္ တခန္းရပ္ခသည္၊က်ဴးေက်ာ္သူ ျမန္မာရို႕ကို ႏွင္ထုတ္ကာ အဂၤလိပ္ရို႕ တဖန္အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္သည္၊ သို႕ေသာ္ အဂၤလိပ္အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခ်ိန္တြင္ ရခိုင္ျပည္မွာ လူမက်န္ခ၊ ရခိုင္ႏိုင္ငံတခုလံုးသည္ သုသာန္တစျပင္ပမာ ေတာႀကီးမ်က္မဲျဖစ္နီလီေတာ့သည္၊

အဂၤလိပ္ အကာအကြယ္ေႀကာင့္ သီကံမေရာက္ သက္မေပ်ာက္ပဲ ရခိုင္တခ်ိဳ႕ ဘဂၤလားနယ္တြင္ က်န္ရစ္သည္၊ ထိုသူမ်ားထဲမွ(၅)ေသာင္းခန္႕ကို ျပန္ေခၚယူကာ ရခိုင္ျပည္တြင္ ျပန္လည္နီရာခ်ထားသည္၊ သခင္ေျပာင္းေသာ ကၽႊန္ဘဝသည္ပင္ ရခိုင္ရို႕အဖို႕ ကံထူးကံျမတ္ျဖစ္သည္၊ ျမန္မာမ်ား. လူမ်ိဳးေရးမုန္းတီးမႈျဖင့္ မ်ဳိးျဖဳတ္သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္းမွ လြတ္ေျမာက္ခရသည္ မဟုတ္ပါလား၊

ကၽႊန္ဘဝတျဖစ္လွဲကို ရခိုင္ရို႕က “ေခတ္္ေကာင္္းခါကယင္”ဟု တင္စားေခၚေဝၚႀကသည္၊ မွန္ပါသည္၊ ျမန္မာလက္
ေအာက္ ႏွစ္(၄၀)လံုးလံုး ဒုက္ခေရာက္နီေသာ ရခိုင္သားရိို႕သည္ ရီနစ္သား တံုးဆြဲမိသကဲ့သို႕ အသက္သွ်ဳေျဖာင့္ခရသည္၊ ကိုယ့္အိုးကိုယ့္အိမ္ျပန္နီခြင့္ရခသည္၊ တနည္းဆိုရလ်င္ ၿဗိတိသွ်ရို႕၏ အကာအကြယ္ကို ရခိုင္ရို႕ရသည္၊ ရခိုင့္စာပီ ျပန္လည္ နလန္ထူလာႏိုင္သည္၊ လြတ္လပ္စြာ ကူးသန္းေရာင္းဝယ္ခြင့္ ဟိသျဖင့္ အေတာ္အသင့္ ခ်မ္းသာလာႀကသည္၊ ေခတ္ပညာကိုလည္း သင္ၾကားခြင့္ရလာသည္၊ ဘြဲ႕ထူးဂုဏ္္ထူးတိကို ဆြတ္ခူးႏိုင္ခသည္၊ အဂၤလိပ္ေခတ္တြင္ ရာထူးႀကီးတိကို ရခိုင္သားတိထမ္းေဆာင္ႏိုင္ခသည္ဟု အိုင္စီအက္စ္ ဦးေက်ာ္မင္းက မွတ္တမ္းရြီးဖူးခသည္။

ရခိုင္ကၽႊန္သက္ (၁၀၁)ႏွစ္ တင္းတင္းျပည္ေသာနိန္႕ ၁၈၈၆-ခု။ ဇန္နဝါရီလ ၁-ရက္နိန္႕မွာ ဗမာတျပည္လံုး အဂၤလိပ္လက္အတြင္းသို႕က်ေရာက္ရသည္၊ ၀ဋ္ႀကြီးျပန္လည္သည္၊ ရခိုင့္အမ်ိဳးသား ဆရာေတာ္အသွ်င္ဥတမသည္ ျမန္မာျပည္၏ လြတ္လပ္ေရးမ်ိဳးစိကို ဦးစြာပထမ အစခ်သည္၊ ဝံသာႏုစိတ္ဓါတ္ကို ႏိုးဆြပီးသည္၊ အႀကိမ္ႀကိမ္ ေထာင္က်အ ဖမ္းခံခရသည္၊ အဂၤလိပ္လက္ေအာက္မွ လြတ္ေျမာက္ရန္ ရခိုင္ေဂါင္းေဆာင္တိသည္ ျမန္မာရို႕နန္႕တန္းတူႀကိဳးပမ္းခသည္၊ အေခ်ာင္မခို ေဂ်ာင္မခိုခပါ၊မင္းသားႀကီးရြီဘန္းသည္ အဂၤလိပ္ကို စတင္ေတာ္လွန္ဖို႕ႀကိဳးပန္းသည္ကို ျမန္မာမွတ္တမ္းမွာမဟိ၊

ဖက္ဆစ္ဂ်ပန္ကို ရခိုင္က အယင္ေတာ္လွန္သည္၊ ၁၉၄၅-ခု။ မတ္လ ၂၇-ရက္နိန္႕ ျမန္မာက ဂ်ပန္ကို ေတာ္လွန္ေသာအခါ ရခိုင္ျပည္တြင္ ဂ်ပန္မဟိပါယာ၊ ရခိုင္ရို႕သည္ ကိုယ္အားကိုယ္ကိုး ေတာ္လွန္ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္၊ ဗမာတပ္မေတာ္မွ ရိုင္ဖယ္တလက္ အကူအညီမယူပါ၊ ဂ်ပန္အဆုတ္တြင္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းသည္ ရခိုင္ျပည္သို႕ ေရာက္လာသည္၊ ဆရာေတာ္အသွ်င္ဦးစိန္ဒါ က်င္းပေသာ ၾကာအင္းေတာင္ ညီလာခံကို တက္ျဖစ္သည္၊ အလံနီပါတီမွ ဦးေအာင္သန္းက ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကို လူသတ္မႈျဖင့္ တရားစြဲသည္(အေသးစိတ္ကိုဘံုေပါက္သာေက်ာ္၏ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးခရီး၀ယ္ စာအုပ္တြင္ဖတ္ပါ၊) စစ္ေတြၾကက္ကိုင္းတန္တြင္“ရခိုုင္တက်ပ္၊ ဗမာတက်ပ္၊ သွ်မ္္းတက်ပ္” တရားကိုေဟာသည၊္ စည္းရံုးလို႕မရသျဖင ့္ “ၿမြီပြီးနန္္႕ ရခိုင္ကိုတြိေက ရခိုင္ကိုအယင္သတ္ရမည္”ဟုျမန္မာျပည္တြင္ ဝါဒျဖန္႕သည၊္

သခင္စိုး၊ သခင္သန္းထြန္း၊ ကြန္ျမဴနစ္အဖြဲ႕တိကလည္း ဆရာေတာ္ အသွ်င္ပညာသီဟကို ဗမာျပည္ လြတ္လပ္ရီးရေက ရခိုင္ကိုလည္း လြတ္လပ္ရီးပီးဖို႕ မန္းတေေလး မဟာမုနိကိုလည္း ျပန္ပီးဖို႕လို႕လိမ္သည္၊ ရိုးသားေသာ ရခိုင္ေခါင္းေဆာင္ရို႕က ျမန္မာမ်က္လွည့္ကို ယံုၾကည္သည္၊လြတ္လပ္ရီးရလာသည္၊ သို႕ေသာ္ ျမန္မာ့လြတ္လပ္ရီးျဖစ္သည္၊ ရခိုင္နန္႕မဆိုင္ပါ၊ သွ်မ္းနန္႕မဆိုင္ပါ၊ မြန္နန္႕မဆိုင္ပါ၊ ကရင္နန္႕မဆိုင္ပါ၊ တိုင္းရင္းသားတိကို ကလိမ္ကက်စ္လုပ္ပနာရခေသာ လြတ္လပ္ရီးျဖစ္သည္၊ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္အာင္ဆန္းေျပာေသာ ရခိုင္တက်ပ္။ မြန္တက်ပ္။သွ်မ္းတက်ပ္။ ဗမာတက်ပ္မူသည္ တိုင္းရင္းသားတက်ပ္ ဗမာအားလံုးျဖစ္လာသည္၊

တိုင္းရင္းသားတိ တက်ပ္။ တက်ပ္စီ ရေသာအခါ ျမန္မာ (၇)က်ပ္ အိပ္ဝင္သပိတ္ဝင္ ပင့္သကူ အေခ်ာင္ရသည္၊ (ယခု DVB အသံလြင့္ဌါနတြင္ ျမန္မာအသံက တရက္ကို (၄၅)မိနစ္ ရေသာအခါ တိုင္းရင္းသားတမ်ိဳးစီက တပတ္လံုးမွ (၁၅)မိနစ္ရသည့္ ဥပမာနန္႕ အလားတူသည္။တနည္းေျပာရလွ်င္ ရခိုင္ရို႕သည္ ျမန္မာတိေအာက္ ေနာက္တႀကိမ္ ကၽႊန္ဇာတ္အသြင္း ခံလိုက္ရသည္၊ျမန္မာရို႕သည္ သမိုင္းစိုဥ္တေလွ်ာက္ ရခိုင္လူမ်ိဳးအေပၚမည္သည့္အခါမွ ေကာင္းက်ိဳးမပီးခပါ၊

ဗိုလ္ရန္ေအာင္ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေသာ ဗမာ့တပ္မေတာ္သည္ ေမာင္ဝိုင္းတပ္အၿပီး ႏွစ္ေပါင္း (၁၁၆)ႏွစ္ အၾကာတြင္ ရခိုင္ျပည္တြင္ ပထမဆံုး ၿခီခ်လာသည္၊ ၁၉၄၂-ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ကုလားရန္ကိုေၾကာက္လို႕ ထြက္ၿပီးလာေသာ ရခိုင္(၄၀ဝ)ေက်ာ္ကို ဗိုလ္ရန္ေအာင္သည္ အကူအညီမပီးဘဲ သေဘၤာကိုျမဳတ္ပနာ လုပ္ႀကံလိုက္သည္၊

ျမန္မာျပည္ လြတ္လပ္ရီးရၿပီး လြတ္လပ္ေသာ ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္ ပါလီမာန္ ဒီမိုကေရစီစနစ္ကို
က်င့္သံုးသည္ဟုဆိုသည္၊ ပါလီမာန္တြင္ ရခိုင္သားရုိ႕ လြပ္လပ္စြာေျပာဆိုခြင့္။ တင္ျပခြင့္ကားရသည္၊ သို႕ေသာ္ လြတ္လပ္စြာ လုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္ကား မရ။ ၁၉၅၂-ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ေတာပန္ဇင္း၊ အခစား (ေက်ာက္ေတာ္)။ မက်ဥ္းကုန္း (မာန္ေအာင္နယ္)စေသာ ရြာတိကို ရြာလံုးကြ်တ္ သတ္ျဖတ္ၿပီး ဦးႏုက ရခိုင္သားရို႕ကို ဒီမိုကေရစီနန္႕ မိတ္ဆက္ပီးသည္၊ ဦးႏု၏ ဒီမိုကေရစီသည္ ရခိုင္သားရို႕အဖို႕ ခါးသီးလွသည္၊

ေျမာက္ဦးၿမဳိ႕ နန္းရာကုန္းထက္မွာ ရခိုင္မ်ိဳးခ်စ္ ထြန္းလွေအာင္ကို ျမန္မာစစ္တပ္က က်ားထိုးသတ္ပစ္သည္၊ ရခိုင္ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္သည္ ဂ်ပန္ထက္ အဆေပါင္းမ်ားစြာဆိုးေသာ ျမန္မာလက္ေအာက္သို႕တဖန္ က်ေရာက္ရသည္၊ ၁၉၅၈-ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ဖဆပလ ႏွစ္ျခမ္းကြဲသည္၊ ျပည္နယ္ျပသနာေပၚလာသည္၊ ဦးႏုေခါင္းေဆာင္ေသာ တည္ၿမဲ ဖဆပလက သူ႕ပါတီကို မဲပီးေက ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ပီးမည္ဟု လိမ္သည္၊ သန္႕သွ်င္းဖဆပလ ဘေဆြက“ျပည္နယ္ မေပးႏိိုုင္ဘူူးး ခင္ဗ်ားတိိုု႕ကိိုု က်န္တ္တဲဲ့့ဟာကိုိုဘဲ ေပးႏိိုင္မယ္” ဟု ေျပာင္တိုက္စိန္ေခၚသည္၊

ရခိုင္သားရို႕သည္ ျပည္နယ္အဆင့္ကိုပင္ ျမန္မာရို႕ပါးက လက္ျဖန္႕ေတာင္းခံရေသာ သူေတာင္းစားဘဝ က်ေရာက္ခရသည္၊ျပည္နယ္လိုခ်င္ေသာ ရခိုင္သားရို ႕သည္ မ်က္စိမွိတ္ပနာ၊ ရတည မဲအပါအဝင္ အမတ္နီရာ (၉)ခုစလံုးကို ဦးႏုအား ပံုေအာလိုက္သည္၊၁၉၆၀-ျပည့္ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီလ ရြီးေကာက္ပြဲတြင္ ဦးႏုပါတီအႏိုင္ရသည္၊ သို႕ေသာ္ ရခိုင္သားရို႕ ျပည္နယ္မရ၊ ဒုတိယံပိ အလိမ္ခံရသည္၊ ရခိုင္သားရို႕မွာ အရွက္လည္းရ ဝမ္းလည္းႀကီးရသည္၊ “ဦီးးႏုကတိ တည္ပါစီ။ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္အယင္ပီး” ဟုသာ ငယ္သံပါေအာင္ေအာ္စြာ လိုင္ေျခာင္းကြဲသည္၊ ဝင္သီးနာသည္၊

ရခိုင္က ျပည္နယ္ေတာင္း။ သွ်မ္းက ဖယ္ဒရယ္မူတင္လာေသာအခါ ဦးႏုသည္ ဟန္မေဆာင္ႏိုင္ျဖစ္ကာ ေေနဝင္းကို အာဏာလြဲအပ္လိုက္ရသည္၊ ျမန္မာရို႕ ပင္ကို ဘီလူးရုပ္ကို ျပရေတာ့သည္၊ ေအာင္ဆန္း “တက်ပ္ကို ေနဝင္းက လုယူလားသည၊္ ထိုခါ ျမန္မာက (၁၄)က်ပ္ရပနာ တိုင္းရင္းသားရို႕မွာ ဝလံုးကြင္းသည္၊

၁၉၆၇-ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ ၁၃-ရက္ ဥပုလ္နိန္႕ စစ္ေတြၿမဳိ႕တြင္ ရခိုင္သား (၃၀ဝ)ရာေက်ာက္ကို ေနဝင္း စစ္တပ္က ပစ္သတ္လိုက္သည္။ “ဘားဗူဟိယင့္ ဆန္ဟိယင့္္၊ ဒိိုးးက်ီဟိယင့္ ရီဟိယင့့္္” ဘဝင္ျမင့္ေသာ ရခိုင္သား၊ ေနဝင္းလက္ေအာက္ ထမင္းငတ္လို႕ သူေတာင္းစားျဖစ္ရသည္၊

ျမဆန္စက္ရွိမွာ ရခိုင္သားတိ ခြီးသီ ဝက္သီ သီကတ္ရသည္၊ “မသီပီပါသိမ့္ အသက္ဟိသိမ့္ေရ” ဆိုေကလည္း မလြတ္ အရွင္လတ္လတ္ၿမီျမဳတ္ခံရသည္၊ မဆလ လက္ေအာက္ ရခိုင္တမ်ိဳးသားလံုး စာရိတ္တပ်က္စီးၿပီးေက ရခိုင္ လူညြန္႕တံုးသည္၊

ညီအစ္ကိုပါဟု ျမန္မာရို ႕ လိမ္လို႕မရ၊ ရခိုင္နန္႕ ျမန္မာသည္ တသီးတျခားစီျဖစ္သည္၊ ရခိုင္လူမ်ိဳးသည္ သမိုင္းစိုဥ္ဆက္ ကိုယ့္ထီးကိုယ့္နန္း ရာဇဝင္နန္႕လာေသာ လူမ်ိဳးတမ်ိဳးျဖစ္သည္၊ ျမန္မာရို႕သည္ မြန္ကတဆင့္ ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာျဖစ္သည္၊ ျမန္မာရို ႕ အေရးၾကီးရဟန္း ကိုးကြယ္ခ်ိန္ ရခိုင္ျပည္မွာ ႏွစ္ေပါင္းတေထာင္ေက်ာ္ ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ အျမစ္တြယ္ၿပီးျဖစ္သည္၊

ဧရာဝတီျမစ္သည္ ကပ္ပလီပင္လယ္ထဲသို႕ စီးဝင္သည္၊ ကုလားတန္ျမစ္သည္ ဘဂၤလားပင္လယ္ထဲသို႕ စီးဆင္းသည္၊ ရခိုင္နန္႕ ျမန္မာသည္ ၿမီလည္းမတူ၊ ရီလည္းမတူ။ လူလည္းျခားသည္၊ ၈၈-အေရးအခင္းျဖစ္လို႕ ဗမာတျပည္လံုး က်က်က္ရိုက္ေသာအခါမွာ ရခိုင္ျပည္ကိုလည္း ကူးစက္လာသည္၊ ၿပီးေယွာင္ခရေသာ ရခိုင္သားမ်ားမွာ ေဘာက္သာလိုက္၊ ေထာင္က်သားလည္းမကန္၊ သတ္ခံရသူလည္းမနည္း၊ ၁၉၉၀-ခုႏွစ္ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲတြင္ ရခိုင္ပါတီ ALDက အမတ္(၁၁)နိန္ရာရသည္၊ အဖိုးဦးသာထြန္း ေထာင္ထဲမွာ အသတ္ခံရသည္၊ မ်ားမၾကာ။ ရခိုင္ပါတီ အၿဖဳိခံရသည္၊ ရခိုင္ေဂါင္းေဆာင္တိကိုဖမ္းဆီး ေထာင္ခ်သည္။ NLD ပါတီက မဲဆြယ္တရား ေဟာႏိုင္ခ်ိန္တြင္ ရခိုင္သားရို႕မွာ ေယာင္လို႕ပင္ ဟလို႕မရ၊ ေျပာမိဆိုမိေကပင္ မ်က္ကန္းမ်ိဳးခ်စ္။ အျမင္က်ဥ္းသူတိအျဖစ္ တံဆိပ္ အရိုက္ခံရသည္၊ က်ဥ္းေျမာင္းေသာ ျမန္မာလူမ်ိဳးငယ္ ဝါဒေအာက္မွာ ရခိုင္သားရို႕ဘဝ စုန္းစုနိပ္ ျမဳတ္ရပါေတာ့သည္၊

၁၉၇၄-ခုႏွစ္ ဖြဲ႕စည္းပံုကို ေနဝင္း (၉၉)ရာႏႈန္း ေထာက္ခံမဲရသည္ဟုလိမ္ပနာ အတည္ျပဳခသည္၊ အခုလည္း လိမ္လည္ပနာ အတည္ျပဳထားသည္၊ ေအာင္ဆန္း က”ၿမီြပီြးနန္႕ ရခိုင္ကိုတြိေက ရခိုင္ကိုအယင္သတ္ရမည္ဟု”ေျပာဖူးသည္။ ရခိုင္စည္းရံုးေရးခရီး အၿပီးတြင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္က ”က်မေတာ့ ရခိုင္ေတြကို ခ်စ္မိသြားၿပီ” ဟုဆိုသည္။ အသူ႕ကို ယံုရဖို႕လဲ။

၂၀ဝ၉-ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇဘၤာလ (၃၁)ရက္နိန္႕တြင္ ရခိုင္ကၽႊန္သက္အႏွစ္(၂၂၅) ႏွစ္ တင္းတင္းျပည့္သည္၊ ရခိုင္ပညာတတ္တိ စိုဥ္းစားပါ၊ ပညာမတတ္သူတိလည္း စိုဥ္းစားပါ၊ ရခိုင္အရိုး ေတာင္ပံုယာပံုျဖစ္လားဗ်ာယ္၊ယခုတဖန္ ရခိုင္ကံၾကမာသည္ အကၽႊန္ရို႕၏ ေဂါင္းထက္
သို႕ က်ေရာက္လာဗ်ာယ္ျဖစ္သည္။ ရခိုင္ပညာတတ္တိ။ ပညာဟိတိ။ ပညာမဲ့တိ အားလံုး သတိထားကတ္ပါ၊ ျမန္မာရို႕ေဖၚစပ္ေတ ဝမ္းႏႈတ္ဆီး အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးကို ေသာက္ဖူးခပါဗ်ာယ္၊ ရခိုင္ရို႕ တခုတည္းေသာ အန္တိမပန္းတိုင္သည္ကား ပဇာျဖစ္ပါသနည္း၊ ရခိုင္အခ်ဳပ္အျခာအာဏာ ရခိုင္လက္တြင္းေရာက္ဟိေရးျဖစ္သည္၊

သမိုင္းေၾကာင္းကိုေျပာေက ပေဒသရာဇ္အခ်င္းခ်င္း စစ္ခင္းခကတ္သည္ဟုသာ စကားလွဆိုသည္၊ သို႕ေသာ္ ျမန္မာရို႕သည္ ပေဒသရာဇ္မ်ား သိမ္းယူခေသာ နယ္ၿမီတိကို အပိုင္ရလိုသည္၊ ကဘာမက်ီမသာၿမီဟု ေႀကြးေၾကာ္ပနာ ဘုရင့္ေနာင္။ က်န္စစ္သား။ အေလာင္းဘုရား စသည္ျဖင့္ အေျခာက္တိုက္ ရန္ေစာင္းနီတတ္သည္၊ ပညာပီးရဖို႕ အခ်ိန္ကိုေရာက္လာပါဗ်ာယ္၊ ကနိန္႕ အခ်ိန္ ရခိုင္သားရို႕သည္ မည္သို႕မွ် မတံု႕ျပန္သိမ့္ေကလည္း မုန္တိုင္းသည္ ႀကိမ္းဝါးဖို႕အတြက္ အားယူတာစူလွ်က္ဟိသည္။

(ရီြးေရလူနာမည္သိေက တစ္ေခါက္ေခ် ဆီေဘာက္စ္ မွာေျပာခပါ)


ပြပြေရာင္တိ မ်ိဳးခ်စ္စိတ္

ပြပြေရာင္တိ မ်ိဳးခ်စ္စိတ္

ရညို႔ကပ္၊ ၾကာအိုက်
ေဂ်ာင္ထိုးနီ ရေရ .........။

အစိုနံ နီေရ
ဘ၀င္ ပုတ္တိေၾကာင့္
ငရို. အဖိုးတစ္ေယာက္

အေတြး အေခၚတိေၾကာင့္
ငါ့ရို. အေဘာင္၊အဖို.ရို.
သီေအာင္ထိ မေရာက္ခ.....။

စုတ္ပီ စုတ္ပ
အဖ အေသ်ွတိ
ေအာက္က် ေနာက္က် နန္.
ဘ၀ ဆံုးလီ


မင္းရို.တိ အတတ္ပညာ
မင္းရို.တိ အသိပညာ
မင္းရို.တိ သနားၾကင္နာမူ
မင္းရို မ်ိဳးခ်စ္စိတ္
မင္းရိုတိ ညီညြတ္ေရး ...........။


မင္း မယားတိ ဘက္မွာလာ
မင္း အမ်ိဳးတိ ဘက္မွာလာ
မလိမ္ေဂ့ ဖိ




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